Helpful A-Z glossary listing key Lloyds Banking Group terms and their definition

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Central Counterparty (CCP)

An institution mediating between the buyer and seller in a financial transaction, such as a derivative contract or repurchase agreement. Where a CCP is used, a single bilateral contract between the buyer and the seller is replaced with two contracts, one between the buyer and the CCP and one between the CCP seller.

Collectively assessed loan impairment provision

A provision established following an impairment assessment on a collective basis for homogeneous groups of loans, such as credit card receivables and personal loans, that are not considered individually significant and for loan losses that have been incurred but not separately identified at the balance sheet date.

Collective unidentified impairment provision

A provision held for loan losses that have been incurred but not separately identified at the balance sheet date

Commercial Paper

Commercial paper is an unsecured promissory note issued to finance short-term credit needs. It specifies the face amount paid to investors on the maturity date. Commercial paper can be issued as an unsecured obligation of the Group or, for example when issued by the Group’s conduits, as an asset-backed obligation (in such case it is referred to as asset-backed commercial paper). Commercial paper is usually issued for periods from as little as a week up to nine months.

Commercial Real Estate

Includes office buildings, industrial property, medical centres, hotels, malls, retail stores, shopping centres, farm land, multifamily housing buildings, warehouses, garages, and industrial properties.

Common equity tier 1 capital (CET1)

The highest quality form of regulatory capital under CRD IV that comprises common shares issued and related share premium, retained earnings and other reserves excluding the cash flow hedging reserve, less specified regulatory adjustments.


A financial vehicle that holds asset-backed securities which are financed with short-term deposits (generally commercial paper) that use the asset-backed securities as collateral. The conduit will often have a liquidity line provided by a bank that it can draw down on in the event that it is unable to issue funding to the market.

Contractual maturities

Contractual maturity refers to the final payment date of a loan or other financial instrument, at which point all the remaining outstanding principal will be repaid and interest is due to be paid.

Cost:Income ratio

Operating expenses compared to total income net of insurance claims. The Group calculates this ratio using the ‘underlying basis’ which is the basis on which financial information is reported internally to management.

Coverage ratio

Impairment provisions as a percentage of impaired loans.


On 27 June 2013, the European Commission published, through the Official Journal of the European Union, its legislation for a Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) and Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR), which together form the CRD IV package. Amendments published on 30 November 2013 were made to the Regulation. The package implements the Basel III reforms in addition to the inclusion of new proposals on sanctions for non-compliance with prudential rules, corporate governance and remuneration. CRD IV rules apply from 1 January 2014 onwards, with certain requirements set to be phased in.

Credit default swap

A credit default swap is a type of credit derivative. It is an arrangement whereby the credit risk of an asset (the reference asset) is transferred from the buyer to the seller of protection. The entity selling protection receives premium or interest-related payments in return for contracting to make payments to the protection buyer upon a defined credit event. Credit events normally include bankruptcy, payment default on a reference asset or assets, or downgrades by a rating agency.

Credit derivatives

A credit derivative is a financial instrument that derives its value from the credit rating of an underlying instrument carrying the credit risk of the issuing entity. The principal type of credit derivatives are credit default swaps, which are used by the Group as part of its trading activity and to manage its own exposure to credit risk.

Credit valuation adjustments

These are adjustments to the fair values of derivative assets to reflect the creditworthiness of the counterparty.